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bet9 食品:跟您说面筋蛋白分类

时间:2018-11-05 浏览:1800次
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小麦面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)具有独(du)特的(de)(de)(de)(de)持水性(xing)(xing)、粘(zhan)(zhan)弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)和起(qi)泡性(xing)(xing),对(dui)面(mian)(mian)团(tuan)(tuan)强度(du)、延展性(xing)(xing)和持气性(xing)(xing)起(qi)到决定(ding)性(xing)(xing)作(zuo)用(yong)。其(qi)品质优劣也直接决定(ding)了面(mian)(mian)团(tuan)(tuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)食(shi)用(yong)品质。市售各类面(mian)(mian)粉的(de)(de)(de)(de)用(yong)途不一也主要(yao)(yao)归咎(jiu)于面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)和质量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)差异。面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)是自然(ran)界(jie)为(wei)(wei)(wei)复(fu)杂的(de)(de)(de)(de)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)之(zhi)一,其(qi)分子(zi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)范围为(wei)(wei)(wei)3万高达上千万道尔顿(Da)。目前(qian)小麦面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)分类主要(yao)(yao)沿用(yong)Osborne分离法(fa),即根据面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)(zai)乙醇(chun)(chun)(chun)水溶(rong)液中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)溶(rong)解(jie)度(du)差异,一般(ban)可将其(qi)分为(wei)(wei)(wei)单(dan)体(ti)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)溶(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)和聚(ju)合体(ti)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai),二者(zhe)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)接近1:1。面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)粘(zhan)(zhan)弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)主要(yao)(yao)来源于粘(zhan)(zhan)性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)溶(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)和弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)。通(tong)常二者(zhe)皆可称(cheng)之(zhi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai),但(dan)这两种蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)无(wu)论从结(jie)(jie)构还是在(zai)(zai)功(gong)能方(fang)面(mian)(mian)都存在(zai)(zai)着很大的(de)(de)(de)(de)差异。小麦面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)非极性(xing)(xing)氨基(ji)酸的(de)(de)(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)较(jiao)高(30%~40%)且(qie)离解(jie)程(cheng)度(du)很低(10%),易形(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)疏(shu)水作(zuo)用(yong),谷(gu)(gu)氨酰胺(an)侧链(lian)含(han)量(liang)(liang)(liang)高易形(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)氢键。同时它们(men)在(zai)(zai)溶(rong)液中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)表现出较(jiao)高程(cheng)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)聚(ju)合行为(wei)(wei)(wei),导致面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)呈现出溶(rong)解(jie)度(du)低和结(jie)(jie)晶性(xing)(xing)差的(de)(de)(de)(de)特性(xing)(xing)。这些(xie)特性(xing)(xing)也成(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)解(jie)析面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)复(fu)杂结(jie)(jie)构的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)(yao)障碍。然(ran)而,为(wei)(wei)(wei)解(jie)释面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)复(fu)杂结(jie)(jie)构和功(gong)能性(xing)(xing)之(zhi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关系(xi),诸多研究学者(zhe)提出了相应的(de)(de)(de)(de)简化模(mo)型。在(zai)(zai)面(mian)(mian)团(tuan)(tuan)体(ti)系(xi)模(mo)型中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)肽链(lian)之(zhi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)通(tong)过链(lian)外二硫键(SS)相连,而醇(chun)(chun)(chun)溶(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)则(ze)(ze)主要(yao)(yao)靠次级作(zuo)用(yong)力(li)与谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)作(zuo)用(yong)形(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)网络(luo)以构成(cheng)(cheng)面(mian)(mian)团(tuan)(tuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)骨架结(jie)(jie)构。面(mian)(mian)筋(jin)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)体(ti)系(xi)模(mo)型中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),线性(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)为(wei)(wei)(wei)高分子(zi)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)亚基(ji),球(qiu)状蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)则(ze)(ze)包括低分子(zi)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)亚基(ji)和单(dan)体(ti)醇(chun)(chun)(chun)溶(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)。其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)线性(xing)(xing)HMS之(zhi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)主要(yao)(yao)通(tong)过SS键相互连接。而HMS与球(qiu)状蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)则(ze)(ze)通(tong)过SS键和次级作(zuo)用(yong)力(li)结(jie)(jie)合。HMS之(zhi)间(jian)(jian)(jian)及HMS与球(qiu)状蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)间(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)连接数量(liang)(liang)(liang)主要(yao)(yao)取决于HMS的(de)(de)(de)(de)肽链(lian)长度(du)。

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